Thyroid carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck, just below the Adam's apple. It is treatable by a medical professional and requires a medical diagnosis. Laboratory tests or imaging are always required. The cause of thyroid cancer is not well understood, but it may involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
People with thyroid cancer may not have any symptoms, while others may notice a lump in the neck. Treatments, which are generally successful, include surgery, hormonal therapy, radioactive iodine, radiation and, in some cases, chemotherapy. Thyroid cancer is divided into several types. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type and accounts for 70-80% of all thyroid cancers. It can occur at any age and tends to grow slowly.
It often spreads to the lymph nodes in the neck. Papillary cancer generally has an excellent prognosis, even if it spreads to the lymph nodes. Thyroid cancers account for approximately 1% of new cancer diagnoses in the United States each year. Thyroid malignancies are divided into papillary carcinomas (80%), follicular carcinomas (10%), medullary thyroid carcinomas (5-10%), anaplastic carcinomas (1-2%), primary thyroid lymphomas (rare) and primary thyroid sarcomas (uncommon).Blood tests usually don't help detect thyroid cancer, and thyroid blood tests, such as TSH, are usually normal, even when cancer is present. Thyroid cancer often presents as a lump or lump in the thyroid and usually causes no other symptoms.
Regular follow-up examinations are essential for all patients with thyroid cancer, because thyroid cancer can sometimes come back several years after successful initial treatment. The function of the thyroid is to produce thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then transported to all tissues in the body. Both MSCs and sporadic CMTFs are treated with total thyroidectomy and lymphatic dissection of the anterior neck compartment (Level VI). As noted above, radiation exposure, especially during childhood, is associated with the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma. For intermediate-risk TLC, the extent of thyroidectomy chosen should be based on the prognosis and characteristics of the patient's history. Thyroid cells and most differentiated thyroid cancers absorb iodine, so radioactive iodine can be used to remove all remaining normal thyroid tissue and, potentially, destroy residual cancerous thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy. The physical examination should include a thorough examination of the head and neck with careful attention to the thyroid gland and cervical soft tissues, as well as an indirect laryngoscopy.
Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is recommended to increase thyrotropin levels at the time of RAI administration as a substitute for levothyroxine withdrawal prior to whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) I-131, serum thyroglobulin test, and ablation. If possible, ligate the lower thyroid artery only after the vessels to the lower branch of the parathyroid gland. Vandetanib (Caprelsa) and cabozantinib (Cometriq) are tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for metastatic and progressive medullary thyroid cancer. For summary information on staging and treatment, see Thyroid Cancer Staging and Cancer Treatment Protocols.
NCCN guidelines recommend lobectomy plus isthmusectomy as initial surgery for patients with follicular neoplasms and Hi¼rthle cell carcinomas, with prompt completion of thyroidectomy if invasive cancer is found in the final histological section.