Where thyroid cancer spreads?

Most patients with thyroid cancer have the cancer contained in the thyroid at the time of diagnosis. About 30% will have metastatic cancer, and most will have spread to the lymph nodes in the neck and only 1 to 4% will have spread the cancer outside the neck to other organs, such as the lungs and bones. Thyroid cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs and bone, and grow there. When cancer cells do this, it's called metastasis.

However, the type of cancer is based on the type of cells from which it originated. Metastatic thyroid cancer, also known as stage 4 thyroid cancer, refers to cancer that has spread from the thyroid gland to distant areas of the body. This is the most advanced stage of thyroid cancer. At this late stage, many symptoms are likely to occur.

In fact, symptoms usually appear at an earlier stage and can often be detected before thyroid cancer has metastasized. Metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as primary tumor. For example, if thyroid cancer spreads to the lungs, lung cancer cells are actually thyroid cancer cells. The disease is metastatic thyroid cancer, not lung cancer.

Localized medullary thyroid cancer is found only in the thyroid and may have spread to nearby neck muscles. When thyroid cancer progresses and metastasizes to distant areas of the body, some additional symptoms may occur. When describing the “T” in thyroid cancer, doctors can subdivide the general categories by adding the letter “s” to indicate a solitary (single) tumor or “m” to indicate multifocal (rather than tumors). Moffitt Cancer Center offers comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and supportive care services for people with thyroid cancer.

Therefore, even if thyroid cancer spreads to the lungs (or anywhere else), it is still called thyroid cancer, not lung cancer. TCSS was defined as a measure of net survival that represents cancer survival in the absence of other causes of death based on causes of death listed in medical records. A higher number, such as stage 4, means more serious cancer that has spread outside the thyroid gland. Comprehensive information for people with cancer, families and caregivers, from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the voice of the world's cancer professionals.

If the cancer returns, another round of tests will be performed to determine the extent of the recurrence. To do this, the doctor will place a thin, hollow needle directly into the nodule to remove some cells and a few drops of fluid to detect cancer. A certain change in the RET gene that is passed from parent to child (hereditary) can cause medullary thyroid cancer. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or preventing them from multiplying.

This variability in clinical and survival outcomes suggests significant heterogeneity in distant metastatic thyroid disease, which could influence its management paradigm and follow-up studies. Thanks to the SEER registrars who offered the SEER database and software to analyze a large number of cancer cohorts. Introduction Heterogeneity was observed in clinical outcomes and survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (TPC) and distant metastases. The discovery of biomarkers that can predict and prevent specific organ colonization in patients with thyroid cancer can help determine the appropriate strategy for follow-up and will open new avenues to personalized medicine.

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Greta Rulnick
Greta Rulnick

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